Sunday, February 23, 2020

Development of International Organizations Essay

Development of International Organizations - Essay Example An international organization†¦represents a form of institution that refers to a formal system of rules and objectives, a rationalized administrative instrument and which has ‘a formal technical and material organization: constitutions, local chapters, physical equipments, machines, emblems, letterhead stationery, a staff, an administrative hierarchy and so forth.’† (Archer, 2001, p. 2) There has been a common tendency to confuse between ‘international organizations’ and ‘international institutions.’ In this context, writers and scholars need to remember that an internal institution actually refers to ‘the detailed structure of an international organization†¦for international organizations is more restricted than the sociological meaning of the word.’(Archer, 2000, p.2) According to the historical references, formation of the international organizations commenced during First Word War at the Versailles Peace Conference (1919). Formation of international organizations in nineteenth century was propelled due to certain social reasons. Political scientists widely agree to the point that in order to formation of such organizations development of sovereign states as well as ‘a relatively stable system’ was necessary in Europe. Moreover, the Great War and its horrific consequences did cast such a tremendous effect over the nations that they immediately understood if harmony between the nations could not be maintained it will not be possible to avoid tragedy of such great dimension. In addition to such factors, the social and economic issues also played a great role in the formation of international organizations. Almost at the end of the nineteenth century the European nations witnessed that they were fighting amongst each other trivial poli tical issues and it was affecting social as well as economic stability of the countries. Consequences of those issues were also reflected in the international relationship of the countries. Thus, the

Friday, February 7, 2020

Inflation and Real Rates of Return Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Inflation and Real Rates of Return - Essay Example Real interest rates can be positive as well as negative. A positive real interest rate indicates that the purchasing power of the individual is increasing while a negative interest rate shows that the purchasing power of the individual is decreasing if the individual invests at the nominal rate. From the calculations above, it can be understood that at the current level of inflation, if a person invests in 1-year Certificate of Deposits, he will end up with less purchasing power. It can be analysed in such a way that a higher inflation rate than the nominal interest rate means that the purchasing power is decreasing at a faster rate than the rate of return of the investment. 2. Duration (Bonds) a. Frederick Macaulay developed a method to measure the interest rate risk of a bond and called it Macaulay Duration. He felt that duration is a better â€Å"measure of the bond’s worth than its time to maturity because duration considers both the repayment of capital at maturity and t he size and timing of coupon payments before maturity† (Macaulay Duration). Macaulay Duration is the weighted average term to maturity of the cash flows from a bond. The weight of each cash flow is determined by dividing the present value of the cash flow by the price (Macaulay Duration Definition). Duration measures a bond’s price sensitivity to interest rate changes. ... Calculating V-: I/Y= 9% V- = $92.406 Calculating V+: I/Y= 11% V+ = $87.781 3. Price-Earnings Ratio a. False. The PE ratio is equal to the market price of the share divided by the earnings per share (EPS). If we are using the dividend discount model to estimate the share price, a higher beta would lead to a higher required rate of return. This would decrease the share price and as a result the PE ratio will decrease. b. True. The PE ratio tells us how much an investor is willing to pay for $1 of a company’s earnings. If the net income of a company is good then the investors will be willing to pay more for a dollar earned. The ROE is equal to the net income divided by the average shareholders’ equity. A higher net income means a higher ROE. c. False. If we are using the dividend discount model to estimate the share price, higher dividends will result in a higher share price. Higher share price will increase the PE ratio. When the plowback rate is higher the dividends will be lower. 4. Book Value a. The market to book value signifies how many times a company’s stock is operating per share compare to the company’s book value per share. The organization’s book value reflect historic costs, hence this ratio is significant in indicating the management’s success in adding value for its shareholders in case of the market value being higher than the book value. A high price to book value ratio means that shareholders expect the management of the company to create more value with the given level of assets. b. Common shareholders’ equity = (20,000 x 20) + 5,000,000 + 70,000 Common shareholders’ equity = $5,470,000 Book value per share = Common shareholders’ equity / Number of common shares outstanding Book value per share = 5,470,000 /

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Being on Time Essay Example for Free

Being on Time Essay Time: It is the universes theoretical constant that governs, sometimes with an iron fist, the everyday lives of humans. Time has many different measurements. There are stellar measurements, such as the phases of the moon or the rotation of the Earth around our Sun. There are extremely long measurements of time, like the geological epoch that can span for tens of millions of years, and there are very small measurements such as planck time, a unit commonly used to measure events in quantum mechanics and is so small that a single unit of planck time is the equivalent of 10-43 seconds. People have always measured time in one form or another. Beginning with our ancestors, who began to measure the phases of the moon almost 30,000 years ago, to the Egyptians who began to measure time using shadows cast by large Obelisks, effectively being the very first sundials. Today, we use a common standard of time in our day-to-day lives. Sixty minutes in an hour, twenty-four hours in a day, three hundred sixty-five days in a solar year; but time has always been used to measure and record important events. This has never been more evident as it has been in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. In this era of human history, punctuality is one of the key elements of our workforce, and particularly in the military. In our world, being on-time carries more with it than just a smooth operation of events. Here, being at the right place at the right time can mean the difference between life and death. As members of the United States Army, we have made a commitment to obey our unique laws and regulations, of which precision and conscionable timing is reflected. In our Uniform Code of Military Justice, timeliness is addressed under our Punitive Articles. Chapter 10, Article 86: ABSENCE WITHOUT LEAVE Any member of the armed forces who, without authority– (1) fails to go to his appointed place of duty at the time prescribed; (2) goes from that place; or (3) absents himself or remains absent from his unit, organization, or place of duty at which he is required to be at the time prescribed; shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. With this being said it is very important for an individual to be at his/her appointed place of duty at least 15 minutes prior to the time stated. Every soldier knows the military motto â€Å"If you are 15 minutes early you are on time; if you are on time you are late! † This is something that was drilled into us during Basic Training and AIT. I understand the punishment I have been given is not to humiliate me, but make sure I adhere to the military standard at all times. I am an epitome of the soldier’s creed and I wear my uniform proudly. All though I am not perfect I strive for perfection every waking moment of everyday. I am currently paying for my actions in a previous incident and by completing the task I was given I hope to prove that I am not a loss; but someone that can be counted on when needed. I will from this point and all those times in the future; make sure I am at my appointed place of duty. If for any reason I am not able to make it on time, I will be sure to contact my chain of command and let them know why and bring evidence of the incident if instructed.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Marriage in the Renaissance and Shakespeares As You Like It Essays

Marriage in the Renaissance and As You Like It      Ã‚   The concept of marriage has been considered to be a sacred and traditional part of life since the beginning of relationships between human beings. The rules of these intimate relationships were set up in accordance with church law. Such rules consisted of the conventional/typical marriage and the ritual of marriage (ceremony). William Shakespeare examines the customs of marriage practice of the Renaissance time period in his work As You Like It.    Marriage at the time focused on a heterosexual relationship between a man and woman. Kirsti S. Thomas, explains that marriage did not concern the true love element that exists in the typical marriages of today. At the time of Shakespeare, she states that marriage "served to transfer wealth or property and to continue the family line" (2). Marriages were the result of socially and economically oriented environments, similar to the caste system in India. According to a web source specializing in Renaissance weddings, such couplings of "...arranged marriages of the upper class were decided when the bride and groom were young, usually ten to eleven years. Lower class marriages had similar motives, however they were the result of pregnancies " (3). Generally, the marriage had to have full consent of at a family member or parental guardian. There were many ordinances and specific codes of conduct that had to be followed before a wedding was to take place. Thomas describes one of these ordi nances with having two guidelines, "In order to be recognized by the church, one of the partners must give consent and the priest must say the formula, 'we join together in this holy matrimony...'" (6). Courtly love did exist, and was encourage... ...t.   Consentual marriage was between a man and a woman. The ritual of a marriage ceremony was more secular and inter-linked with the Catholic church. Throughout the characters in the play, those themes are illustrated.    Works Cited Coulton, G.G. Life in the Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press. 1967. P. 83 Davis, William Steams. Life of a Medieval Barony. Harper and Row. New York. 1951. P. 109-112. Greensblatt, Stephen.   The Norton Shakespeare Oxford Edition. W.W. Norton and Co. New York. 1997. 1591-1656. Thomas, Kirsti S/ "Medieval and Renaissance Marriage: Theory and Customs". Medieval and Renaissance Wedding Page. Ed: Kuehl B.J. 1995. Date Accessed: 14 October 2002. Renaissance Weddings. 2001. World Web Design, LLC. Date Accessed: 14 October 2002.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Adoption from China vs the United States Essay

When a couple begins to explore the idea of adopting a child, it is easy for them to quickly become overwhelmed with information, questions and decisions. One of the first dilemmas couples face is whether to pursue international adoption or domestic adoption. By thoroughly researching and weighing both options, a couple can decide whether international or domestic adoption is best for their family. Some of the requirements that must be met to adopt in China include marital Status, only married couples with marriage defined as between a man and a woman, who have been married for at least 2 years are able to adopt from China. If either has been divorced, the couple must be married for 5 years before considering adopting from China. No more than two divorces are allowed; the age of prospective adoptive parents must be between 30 and 44 years old to adopt babies around 1 year old. Prospective adoptive parents can be between the ages of 30 and 50 for other children (about. com, 2012); Educational requirement for both parents are that they must have a H. S. diploma or vocational training. Typically from start to finish it will take 36-48 months for the adoption to be final. The biggest factor influencing the wait for a child is the time it takes the China Center of Adoption Affairs (CCAA) to make a referral to a family. The current referral time is approximately eight months after the detailed prospective parents files are submitted and registered with the CCAA. The cost to adopt from China is not inexpensive; it can run $20,000 to $40,000, including travel. This cost also covers registration and program fees, applications, and home study fees, necessary paperwork and background checks, just to name a few. Medical records of children adopted internationally are often minimal, if available at all. Information regarding the social history of the child’s birth parents, such as family medical history is also often unavailable (the Adoption Guide, 2012). In comparison, some of the requirements to adopt in the United States include marital status; couples do not have to be married to adopt; however, it will be easier for them to adopt if they are married. If the adopting parent is married, a minimum of a three year marriage is a common requirement; the minimum legal age to adopt is generally 18 years of age to 40 years of age. In most situations, however, there will be a requirement that the adopting parents must be at least 20 years older than the child they are seeking to adopt; history of employment stability, and the prospect of future employment stability, are always considered to be big plusses in the eyes of birthparents; there is a thorough background check done in an attempt to uncover evidence of any prior legal or criminal problems, or any problems with child abuse, financial instability, or substance abuse. The average time from preparation of portfolio to match with a birthmother can vary from 3 months (this being the majority) to being longer than 24 months; this includes time spent in false starts. The final adoption decree is usually finalized 6 months after the placement of the child with an adoptive family. The cost of adoption in the United States can range from $5,000 to $40,000 for agency and private adoptions. The cost includes; Agency applications nd program fees, attorney fees, birthmothers expenses, and travel just to name a few. One very large legal concern in domestic adoption is that in an attorney-facilitated adoption, a birth parent can try to withdraw consent to the adoption before the final adoption decree goes into effect, which is six months after placement. To exercise this right to withdraw consent, a birth parent must present clear and convincing evidence that the â€Å"best interests of the child† have changed (adoption. com, 2012). Furthermore, the numbers of children in China awaiting adoption has dropped significantly in the past few years. In 2006, about 6,493 Chinese orphans came to the United States; in 2011 only 2,587 children were adopted. The belief for the decline is the rather strict adoption requirement that have been placed on prospective parents. Despite the fact that we live in one of the most fortunate nations in the world, there are 115,000 children in the U. S. foster care system waiting to be adopted. Unfortunately some of these children are waiting because they are difficult to place due to their age, the fact that they are part of a sibling group, or their disability. The total number of children worldwide who are orphaned and waiting to be is approximately 2. 2 billion. Out of those 2. 2 billion children, 16 million children are estimated to be orphans. How do you even wrap your brain around that many parent-less children? The total number of children adopted worldwide each year, out of those 16 million orphans, is a mere 250,000. These numbers are pretty overwhelming when you think about it (the Adoption Guide, 2012). The decision between domestic adoptions vs. international adoptions only scratches the surface of this big decision. Because a family’s experience with adopting from China will be very different from a family adopting from the United States, it is difficult to describe what to expect in either situation. Couples should fully research each of these adoption venues and then weigh their options to see which best matches their adoption plan.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Alfred Tennyson, often regarded as the chief...

The Victorian age was an age where many changes occurred socially, economically, and industrially. People began to explore into areas such as the earth, the human body, and how to benefit the daily lives of individuals. English literature was also something that was beginning to be developed. Historically, it began when Queen Victoria was anointed to the thrown in 1837 and brought a new prosperity to England. She held the throne for 63 years which is the longest monarch to hold the thrown ever in English history. To many people, she was a symbol of stability and prosperity as evidenced by the following feeling from her people. The Victorian age has been said to be a very diverse time. Historian T.B. Macaulay in 1838 said that†¦show more content†¦People began to ask more questions about life, which prompted the development of science and many people began to question the bible. Lyells Principles of Geology and Chambers Vestiges of creation brought out the view publically that the earth was older than the bible said it to be. Peoples beliefs were suddenly being shattered and the quest for answers was in need. The change caused a great deal of confusion and alarm, which prompted English writers to accept responsibility and write about new thoughts, beliefs, and feelings. Alfred Tennyson, who is a very famous poet, is often regarded as the chief representative of the Victorian age in poetry. Tennyson was a man who had seen pain and sorrow in his life. After the death of his best friend, Arthur Hallam, Tennyson found relief from his pain in writing. Many of his writings were indeed about his dead friend. For example in The Passing of Arthur, the hero has the same name as Tennysons friend and also many lyrical poems, that later were to become In Memorian A.H.H. These writing were full of emotions, pain, fear, caring, and the desire to remember his friend. Almost throughout all of Tennysons work there were pain, sadness, fear, love, and hidden messages to be found, and he was very romantic. He opened himself up to the world in a very private way, and also to severe criticism by manyShow MoreRelatedA Study of the Life and Career of Lord Alfred Tennyson and Selected Cr1790 Words   |  8 PagesA Study Of The Life And Career Of Lord Alfred Tennyson And Selected Criticism Of His Works Whether a person likes or dislikes the works of Lord Alfred Tennyson, most would agree that he was one of the most influential writers of his time period. Tennyson grew up in a wealthy family never wanting for anything. English author often regarded as the chief representative of the Victorian age in poetry. Tennyson succeeded Wordsworth as Poet Laureate in 1850; he was appointed by Queen Victoria andRead More A Comparison of Wilfred Owen’s Dulce et Decorum est to Alfred Tennyson’s Charge of the Light Brigade1881 Words   |  8 PagesA Comparison of Wilfred Owen’s â€Å"Dulce et Decorum est† to Alfred Tennyson’s â€Å"Charge of the Light Brigade† In this essay I will attempt to compare and contrast Wilfred Owen’s â€Å"Dulce et Decorum est† to Alfred Tennyson’s â€Å"Charge of the Light Brigade†. I will examine the use of poetic devices in the poems as well as outline what is happening in each. Wilfred Owen was born on the 18th of March 1893 in owestry, United Kingdom. He was the oldest of four children and was educated in an evangelicalRead More A Study Of The Life And Career Of Lord Alfred Tennyson and Selected Criticisms of His Works1751 Words   |  8 Pages A Study Of The Life And Career Of Lord Alfred Tennyson And Selected Criticism Of His Works nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Whether a person likes or dislikes the works of Lord Alfred Tennyson, most would agree that he was one of the most influential writers of his time period. Tennyson grew up in a wealthy family never wanting for anything. English author often regarded as the chief representative of the Victorian age in poetry. Tennyson succeeded Wordsworth as Poet Laureate in 1850; he was appointed

Friday, December 27, 2019

William Tennyson s Idylls Of The King - 967 Words

Throughout the book by Alfred, Lord Tennyson entitled Idylls of the King, subject, ideas, and object often reoccur on each page bring with them deeper meaning then that which is apparent. The more specific motif that I will be explaining is the contrast and similarity of light and darkness in the descriptions of people, settings, and the mood of a situation. Light and darkness can be contrasted in many ways, such as the rising sun, bright colors, and physical description of darkness such as heavy mist. When describing people during specific events, Tennyson uses the diction between light and dark to show the reader inside the typical appearance of the character and see what they truly are inside. As Arthur passes by Guinevere, he â€Å"Felt the light of her eyes into his life† (Tennyson 6) while Guinevere did not even notice that the King had just been in her presence. This light from her eyes is supposed to be describing Guinevere, but it really gives us insight into the mind of Arthur. While Arthur has become King, he still acts like an average person. He does not think more highly of himself than everyone else and can notice a simplistic young woman and instantly love her, although he had no idea of who she is. This also shows Arthurs innocence in that he instantly see’s good in her and feel the light radiating off of her. We learn later that she is not nearly as wonderful as Arthur had thought, and as Arthur learns that he was wrong to assume about her, â€Å"She made her face aShow MoreRelatedSimilarities and Differences Between the Romantic Age and the Victorian Period.1210 Words   |  5 PagesWhat were the similarities and differences between the Romantic Age and the Victorian Period? The Romantic Age and Victorian Period had many similarities, but they had far more differences. They first differed in rule: the Romantic Age didn’t have a king or queen, but the Victorian Period did. They were similar and different in writing styles , and beliefs. The Industrial Revolution also had an effect on both time periods. The Romantic Period was from 1784 until 1832. The Romantics brought amore braveRead MoreThe Romantic Age vs. The Victorian Period Essay1264 Words   |  6 PagesThe Romantic Age and Victorian Period had many similarities, but they had just as many or more differences. They first differed in rule; the Romantic Age didnt have a king or queen, but they did during the Victorian Period. They were similar and different in writing styles, and beliefs. The Industrial Revolution also had a huge effect on both time periods. The Romantic Period was from 1784 until 1832, it brought a more brave, individual, and imaginative approach to both literature and life. DuringRead MoreLiterary Tendency of Victorian Literature: Special Reference to Lord Alfred Tennyson and Robert Browning3101 Words   |  13 PagesLiterary tendency of Victorian literature: special reference to Lord Alfred Tennyson and Robert Browning 1.1 An Introduction to Victorian Period: The Victorian era is generally agreed to stretch through the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901). It was a tremendously exciting period when many artistic styles, literary schools, as well as, social, political and religious movements flourished. It was a time of prosperity, broad imperial expansion, and great political reform. It was also a time, whichRead MoreNature Trhough Romanticism and Victorian Period2582 Words   |  11 PagesCOMPARATIVE OF WORDSWORTH AND TENNYSON: LIFE, SOCIAL AND POLITICAL EVENTS AND WORKS. NATURE TRHOUGH ROMANTICISM AND VICTORIAN PERIOD         Ã‚  Ã‚  In this paper, I’m going to compare the two great poets there is in each period that we have study: William Wordsworth as a Romantic poet and Lord Tennyson as a Victorian one. I’m going to compare their life, works and the political and social context in which they were involved because I want to demonstrate why they were the most important poets in their respectiveRead MoreAnalysis Of King Arthur And The Knights Of The Round Table1901 Words   |  8 PagesKing Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table is an incredible story of bravery, and knights who fight for those that cannot and for the greater good’s future. But it is only a legend, there is not enough factual evidence that King Arthur actually existed, only he could have been based off of another general or great leader in that time and created by a writer’s imagination. Thomas Malory was the first to provide an English work retelling of the legend in his Le Morte D Arthur, published in 1485Read MoreLiterary Group in British Poetry5631 Words   |  23 Pageswidely studied. However, the century really belongs to a group of remarkable Scottish writers. The rise of Scottish poetry began with the writing of The Kingis Quair by James I of Scotland. The main poets of this Scottish group were Robert Henryson, William Dunbar and Gavin Douglas. Henryson and Douglas introduced a note of almost savage satire, which may have owed something to the Gaelic bards, while Douglas version of Virgils Aeneid is one of the early monuments of Renaissance literary humanism in